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Bangladesh Phone sex keya. Bangladesh phone sex Girl keya. Still can't find what you're looking for?! The predominant language of Bangladesh is Bengali also known as Bangla.

Bengali is the one of the easternmost branches of the Indo-European language family. It is a part of the Eastern Indo-Aryan languages in South Asia, which developed between the 10th and 13th centuries.

Bengali is written using the Bengali script. In ancient Bengal, Sanskrit was the language of written communication, especially by priests. During the Islamic period, Sanskrit was replaced by Bengali as the vernacular language.

The Sultans of Bengal promoted the production of Bengali literature instead of Sanskrit. Bengali also received Persian and Arabic loanwords during the Sultanate of Bengal.

Under British rule , Bengali was significantly modernised by Europeans. Modern Standard Bengali emerged as the lingua franca of the region.

A heavily Sanskritized version of Bengali was employed by Hindu scholars during the Bengali Renaissance.

Muslim writers such as Kazi Nazrul Islam gave attention to the Persian and Arabic vocabulary of the language.

Today, the Bengali language standard is prescribed by the Bangla Academy in Bangladesh. More than 98 percent of people in Bangladesh speak Bengali as their native language.

Currently there is a diglossia in which much of the population are able to understand or speak Standard Colloquial Bengali and in their regional dialect, these include the most distinct dialects some consider as separate languages such as Chittagonian or Sylheti.

All subsequent acts, ordinances and laws have been promulgated in Bengali since It is written using the Chakma script. The unique aspect of the language is that it is used by the Chakma people, who are a population with similarities to the people of East Asia, rather than the Indian subcontinent.

The Chakma language is endangered due to its decreasing use in schools and institutions. Other tribal languages include Garo , Meitei , Kokborok and Rakhine.

Among the Austroasiatic languages , the Santali language is spoken by the Santali tribe. Many of these languages are written in the Bengali script; while there is also some usage of the Latin script.

Urdu has a significant heritage in Bangladesh, in particular Old Dhaka. The language was introduced to Bengal in the 17th-century.

Traders and migrants from North India often spoke the language in Bengal, as did sections of the Bengali upper class. Urdu poets lived in many parts of Bangladesh.

The use of Urdu became controversial during the Bengali Language Movement , when the people of East Bengal resisted attempts to impose Urdu as the main official language.

In modern Bangladesh, the Urdu-speaking community is restricted to the country's Bihari community formerly Stranded Pakistanis ; and some sections of the Old Dhakaiya population.

The constitution grants freedom of religion and officially makes Bangladesh a secular state , while establishing Islam as the "religion of the Republic".

There is also a minority of non-Bengali Muslims. About four percent are non-denominational Muslims. The largest gathering of Muslims in Bangladesh is the apolitical Bishwa Ijtema , held annually by the orthodox Tablighi Jamaat.

The Ijtema is the second-largest Muslim congregation in the world, after the Hajj. The Islamic Foundation is an autonomous government agency responsible for some religious matters under state guidance, including monitoring of sighting of the moon in accordance with the lunar Islamic calendar in order to set festival dates; as well as the charitable tradition of zakat.

Hinduism is followed by 8. Bangladeshi Hindus are the country's second-largest religious group and the third-largest Hindu community in the world, after those in India and Nepal.

The festivals of Durga's Return and Krishna's Birthday are public holidays. Buddhism is the third-largest religion, at 0.

Bangladeshi Buddhists are concentrated among ethnic groups in the Chittagong Hill Tracts particularly the Chakma, Marma and Tanchangya peoples , while coastal Chittagong is home to a large number of Bengali Buddhists.

Although the Mahayana school of Buddhism was historically prevalent in the region, Bangladeshi Buddhists today adhere to the Theravada school.

Buddha's Birthday is a public holiday. The chief Buddhist priests are based at a monastery in Chittagong.

Christianity is the fourth-largest religion, at 0. Bengali Christians are spread across the country; while there are many Christians among minority ethnic groups in the Chittagong Hill Tracts southeastern Bangladesh and within the Garo tribe of Mymensingh north-central Bangladesh.

The country also has Protestant, Baptist and Oriental Orthodox churches. Christmas is a public holiday.

The Constitution of Bangladesh declares Islam the state religion, but bans religion-based politics. It proclaims equal recognition of Hindus, Buddhists, Christians and people of all faiths.

Bangladesh has a literacy rate of The country's educational system is three-tiered and heavily subsidised, with the government operating many schools at the primary, secondary and higher-secondary levels and subsidising many private schools.

In the tertiary-education sector, the Bangladeshi government funds over 45 state universities [] through the University Grants Commission.

The education system is divided into five levels: primary first to fifth grade , junior secondary sixth to eighth grade , secondary ninth and tenth grade , higher secondary 11th and 12th grade and tertiary.

Students who pass the PEC examination proceed to secondary or matriculation training, culminating in the SSC examination. Students who pass this examination proceed to two years of secondary education, culminating in the SSC examination.

Students who pass this examination proceed to two years of higher-secondary education, culminating in the Higher Secondary School Certificate HSC examination.

Education is primarily in Bengali, but English is commonly taught and used. Many Muslim families send their children to part-time courses or full-time religious education in Bengali and Arabic in madrasas.

Article 17 of the Bangladesh Constitution provides that all children between the ages of six and ten years receive a basic education free of charge.

Universities in Bangladesh are of three general types: public government-owned and -subsidized , private privately owned universities and international operated and funded by international organisations.

Bangladesh has 46 public, [] private [] and two international universities ; Bangladesh National University has the largest enrolment, and the University of Dhaka established in is the oldest.

University of Chittagong established in is the largest University Campus: Rural, 2, acres 8. Asian University for Women in Chittagong is the preeminent South Asian liberal-arts university for women, representing 14 Asian countries; its faculty hails from notable academic institutions in North America, Europe, Asia, Australia and the Middle East.

The NITER is a specialised public-private partnership institute which provides higher education in textile engineering.

Medical education is provided by 29 government and private medical colleges. All medical colleges are affiliated with the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.

Bangladesh's literacy rate rose to 71 percent due to education modernisation and improved funding, with 16, schools and 2, colleges receiving Monthly Pay Order MPO facilities.

According to then education minister Nurul Islam Nahid , 27, madrasas and technical and vocational institutions were enlisted for the facility.

Healthcare facilities in Bangladesh is considered less than adequate, although they have improved as poverty levels have decreased significantly.

Formally-trained providers made up only four percent of the total health workforce. The Future Health Systems survey indicated significant deficiencies in the treatment practices of village doctors, with widespread harmful and inappropriate drug prescribing.

A study of 1, households in rural Bangladesh found that direct payments to formal and informal healthcare providers and indirect costs loss of earnings because of illness associated with illness were deterrents to accessing healthcare from qualified providers.

Bangladesh's poor health conditions are attributed to the lack of healthcare provision by the government. According to a World Bank report, healthcare spending was 3.

Malnutrition has been a persistent problem in Bangladesh, with the World Bank ranking the country first in the number of malnourished children worldwide.

The recorded history of art in Bangladesh can be traced to the 3rd century BCE, when terracotta sculptures were made in the region. In classical antiquity, a notable school of sculptural Hindu, Jain and Buddhist art developed in the Pala Empire and the Sena dynasty.

Islamic art evolved since the 14th century. The architecture of the Bengal Sultanate saw a distinct style of domed mosques with complex niche pillars that had no minarets.

Mughal Bengal 's most celebrated artistic tradition was the weaving of Jamdani motifs on fine muslin, which is now classified by UNESCO as an intangible cultural heritage.

Jamdani motifs were similar to Iranian textile art buta motifs and Western textile art paisley. The Jamdani weavers in Dhaka received imperial patronage.

Pottery is widely used in Bengali culture. The modern art movement in Bangladesh took shape during the s, particularly with the pioneering works of Zainul Abedin.

East Bengal developed its own modernist painting and sculpture traditions, which were distinct from the art movements in West Bengal. The Art Institute Dhaka has been an important center for visual art in the region.

Novera Ahmed and Nitun Kundu were the country's pioneers of modernist sculpture. In recent times, photography as a medium of art has become popular.

Biennial Chobi Mela is considered the largest photography festival in Asia. Bengali developed from Sanskrit and Magadhi Prakrit in the 8th to 10th century.

Bengali literature is a millennium-old tradition; the Charyapadas are the earliest examples of Bengali poetry.

Sufi spiritualism inspired many Bengali Muslim writers. The Chandidas are the notable lyric poets from the early Medieval Age.

Syed Alaol was a noted secular poet and translator from the Arakan region. The Bengal Renaissance shaped the emergence of modern Bengali literature, including novels, short stories and science fiction.

Begum Rokeya is regarded as the pioneer feminist writer of Bangladesh. The writer Syed Mujtaba Ali is noted for his cosmopolitan Bengali worldview.

Shamsur Rahman and Al Mahmud are considered two of the greatest Bengali poets to have emerged in the 20th century. Ahmed Sofa is regarded as the most important Bangladeshi intellectual in the post-independence era.

Humayun Ahmed was a popular writer of modern Bangladeshi magical realism and science fiction. Although, as of [update] , several women occupied major political office in Bangladesh, its women continue to live under a patriarchal social regime where violence is common.

Bengal has a long history of feminist activism dating back to the 19th century. Begum Rokeya and Faizunnessa Chowdhurani played an important role in emancipating Bengali Muslim women from purdah , prior to the country's division, as well as promoting girls' education.

The first women's magazine, Begum , was published in Agriculture, social services, healthcare and education are also major occupations for Bangladeshi women, while their employment in white collar positions has steadily increased.

The architectural traditions of Bangladesh have a 2,year-old heritage. Islamic architecture began developing under the Bengal Sultanate, when local terracotta styles influenced medieval mosque construction.

The Sixty Dome Mosque was the largest medieval mosque built in Bangladesh, and is a fine example of Turkic-Bengali architecture.

The Mughal style replaced indigenous architecture when Bengal became a province of the Mughal Empire and influenced the development of urban housing.

The Kantajew Temple and Dhakeshwari Temple are excellent examples of late medieval Hindu temple architecture. Indo-Saracenic Revival architecture , based on Indo-Islamic styles, flourished during the British period.

Bengali vernacular architecture is noted for pioneering the bungalow. Bangladeshi villages consist of thatched roofed houses made of natural materials like mud , straw , wood and bamboo.

In modern times, village bungalows are increasingly made of tin. Muzharul Islam was the pioneer of Bangladeshi modern architecture.

His varied works set the course of modern architectural practice in the country. Kahn's monumental designs, combining regional red brick aesthetics, his own concrete and marble brutalism and the use of lakes to represent Bengali geography, are regarded as one of the masterpieces of the 20th century.

In more recent times, award-winning architects like Rafiq Azam have set the course of contemporary architecture by adopting influences from the works of Islam and Kahn.

Theatre in Bangladesh includes various forms with a history dating back to the 4th century CE. The dance traditions of Bangladesh include indigenous tribal and Bengali dance forms, as well as classical Indian dances , including the Kathak , Odissi and Manipuri dances.

Most modern Bauls are devoted to Lalon Shah. Folk music is accompanied by a one-stringed instrument known as the ektara.

Other instruments include the dotara , dhol , flute, and tabla. Bengali classical music includes Tagore songs and Nazrul Sangeet. Bangladesh has a rich tradition of Indian classical music , which uses instruments like the sitar , tabla, sarod and santoor.

The Nakshi Kantha is a centuries-old embroidery tradition for quilts , said to be indigenous to eastern Bengal i. The sari is the national dress for Bangladeshi women.

Mughal Dhaka was renowned for producing the finest Muslin saris, as well as the famed Dhakai and Jamdani , the weaving of which is listed by UNESCO as one of the masterpieces of humanity's intangible cultural heritage.

The shalwar kameez is also widely worn by Bangladeshi women. In urban areas some women can be seen in western clothing. The kurta and sherwani are the national dress of Bangladeshi men; the lungi and dhoti are worn by them in informal settings.

Aside from ethnic wear, domestically tailored suits and neckties are customarily worn by the country's men in offices, in schools and at social events.

The retailer Aarong is one of the most successful ethnic wear brands in South Asia. The development of the Bangladesh textile industry, which supplies leading international brands, has promoted the production and retail of modern Western attire locally, with the country now having a number of expanding local brands like Westecs and Yellow.

Bangladesh is the world's second largest garments exporter. Among Bangladesh's fashion designers, Bibi Russell has received international acclaim for her "Fashion for Development" shows.

White rice is the staple of Bangladeshi cuisine, along with many vegetables and lentils. Rice preparations also include Bengali biryanis , pulaos , and khichuris.

Mustard sauce, ghee , sunflower oil and fruit chutneys are widely used in Bangladeshi cooking. Fish is the main source of protein in Bengali cuisine.

The Hilsa is the national fish and immensely popular across Bangladesh. Other kinds of fish eaten include rohu , butterfish , catfish, tilapia and barramundi.

Fish eggs are a gourmet delicacy. Seafood holds an important place in Bengali cuisine, especially lobsters , shrimps and dried fish.

Meat consumption includes chicken, beef, mutton , venison , duck and squab. In Chittagong, Mezban feasts are a popular tradition featuring the serving of hot beef curry.

In Sylhet, the shatkora lemons are used to marinate dishes. In the tribal Hill Tracts, bamboo shoot cooking is prevalent.

Pithas are traditional boiled desserts made with rice or fruits. Halwa is served during religious festivities. Naan , paratha , luchi and bakarkhani are the main local breads.

Milk tea is offered to guests as a gesture of welcome and is the most common hot beverage in the country. Kebabs are widely popular across Bangladesh, particularly seekh kebabs , chicken tikka and shashliks.

Bangladesh shares its culinary heritage with the neighbouring Indian state of West Bengal. The two regions have several differences, however.

In Muslim-majority Bangladesh, meat consumption is greater; whereas in Hindu-majority West Bengal, vegetarianism is more prevalent.

The Bangladeshi diaspora dominates the South Asian restaurant industry in many Western countries, particularly in the United Kingdom.

Pahela Baishakh , the Bengali new year, is the major festival of Bengali culture and sees widespread festivities. Of the major holidays celebrated in Bangladesh, only Pahela Baishakh comes without any pre-existing expectations specific religious identity, culture of gift-giving, etc.

Other cultural festivals include Nabonno , and Poush Parbon both of which are Bengali harvest festivals. The two Eids are celebrated with long streak of public holidays and give the city-dwellers opportunity to celebrate the festivals with their families outside city.

These occasions are celebrated with public ceremonies, parades, rallies by citizens, political speeches, fairs, concerts, and various other public and private events, celebrating the history and traditions of Bangladesh.

TV and radio stations broadcast special programs and patriotic songs, and many schools and colleges organise fairs, festivals, and concerts that draw the participation of citizens from all levels of Bangladeshi society.

While Kabaddi is the national sport [] Cricket is the most popular sport in the country followed by football.

The national cricket team participated in their first Cricket World Cup in and the following year was granted Test cricket status. Bangladesh reached the quarter-final of the Cricket World Cup , the semi-final of the ICC Champions Trophy and they reached the final of the Asia Cup 3 times — in , and This was Bangladesh's first World Cup victory.

Women's sports saw significant progress in the s decade in Bangladesh. In the Bangladesh women's national cricket team won the Women's Twenty20 Asia Cup defeating India women's national cricket team in the final.

The National Sports Council regulates 42 sporting federations. Chess is very popular in Bangladesh. Bangladesh has five grandmasters in chess.

Among them, Niaz Murshed was the first grandmaster in South Asia. Bangladesh hosts a number of international tournaments. Bangabandhu Cup is an international football tournament hosted in the country.

Bangladesh hosted the South Asian Games several times. Bangladesh hosted the Asia Cup Cricket Tournament in , , and The Bangladeshi press is diverse, outspoken and privately owned.

Over newspapers are published in the country. Bangladesh Betar is the state-run radio service. Bengali broadcasts from Voice of America are also very popular.

Bangladesh Television BTV is the state-owned television network. There more than 20 privately owned television networks, including several news channels.

Freedom of the media remains a major concern, due to government attempts at censorship and the harassment of journalists. The cinema of Bangladesh dates back to , when films began screening at the Crown Theatre in Dhaka.

The first bioscope on the subcontinent was established in Dhaka that year. The Dhaka Nawab Family patronised the production of several silent films in the s and 30s.

During the s, 25—30 films were produced annually in Dhaka. By the s, Bangladesh produced 80— films a year.

While the Bangladeshi film industry has achieved limited commercial success, the country has produced notable independent filmmakers.

Zahir Raihan was a prominent documentary-maker who was assassinated in The late Tareque Masud is regarded as one of Bangladesh's outstanding directors for his critically acclaimed films on social issues.

Bangladesh have very active film society culture. Now around 40 Film Society active in all over Bangladesh.

Federation of Film Societies of Bangladesh is the parent organisation of the film society movement of Bangladesh.

The Varendra Research Museum is the oldest museum in Bangladesh. It houses important collections from both the pre-Islamic and Islamic periods, including the sculptures of the Pala-Sena School of Art and the Indus Valley Civilization; as well as Sanskrit, Arabic and Persian manuscripts and inscriptions.

The Ahsan Manzil, the former residence of the Nawab of Dhaka, is a national museum housing collections from the British Raj. The Tajhat Palace Museum preserves artefacts of the rich cultural heritage of North Bengal, including Hindu-Buddhist sculptures and Islamic manuscripts.

The Mymensingh Museum houses the personal antique collections of Bengali aristocrats in central Bengal. The Ethnological Museum of Chittagong showcases the lifestyle of various tribes in Bangladesh.

The Liberation War Museum documents the Bangladeshi struggle for independence and the genocide. In ancient times, manuscripts were written on palm leaves, tree barks, parchment vellum and terracotta plates and preserved at monasteries known as viharas.

The Hussain Shahi dynasty established royal libraries during the Bengal Sultanate. Libraries were established in each district of Bengal by the zamindar gentry during the Bengal Renaissance in the 19th century.

The trend of establishing libraries continued until the beginning of World War II. The Great Bengal Library Association was formed in The National Library of Bangladesh was established in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the People's Republic of Bangladesh. For other uses, see Bangladesh disambiguation. Country in South Asia. Official Seal of the Government of Bangladesh.

Chittagonian Sylheti Rangpuri. Independence from Pakistan. Website bangladesh. Main article: Names of Bengal.

Main articles: History of Bengal and History of Bangladesh. Vanga Kingdom and erstwhile neighbors in ancient South Asia.

Gauda Kingdom , the first independent unified polity in the Bengal region. The Pala Empire was an imperial power during the Late Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, which originated in the region of Bengal.

The 9th-century ruins of Somapura Mahavihara. The Sultanate of Bengal was the sovereign power of Bengal for much of the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries.

The 15th-century Sixty Dome Mosque is the largest mosque in Bangladesh that was built during the period of the Bengal Sultanate. Lalbagh Fort also Fort Aurangabad is an incomplete 17th-century Mughal fort complex that stands before the Buriganga River in the southwestern part of Dhaka.

Portuguese colonisation in the Bengal Sultanate and the Bay of Bengal from 16th to 19th century. The Bengal Presidency at its greatest extent.

Map showing the result of the Partition of Bengal Main article: Partition of Bengal Main articles: East Bengal and East Pakistan. Shaheed Minar , established to commemorate those killed during the Bengali Language Movement demonstrations of in then East Pakistan.

Female students march in defiance of the Section prohibition on assembly during the Bengali Language Movement in early Main article: Bangladesh Liberation War.

Martyred Intellectuals Memorial near Rayerbazar killing field is built in memory of the martyred intellectuals of Liberation War. Swadhinata Stambha or Independence Monument commemorate the historical events that took place in the Suhrawardy Udyan regarding the Liberation War.

See also: Military coups in Bangladesh. Zia and Ershad were the country's strongmen between — and — respectively. See also: Bangladeshi political crisis.

The rivalry between Hasina and Zia has been dubbed the Battle of the Begums [] []. Main article: Geography of Bangladesh.

Main article: Administrative geography of Bangladesh. Main article: Climate of Bangladesh. Main articles: Wildlife of Bangladesh and Fauna of Bangladesh.

Main article: Politics of Bangladesh. Abdul Hamid , President since Sheikh Hasina , Prime Minister since Main article: Laws in Bangladesh.

Main article: Bangladesh Armed Forces. Main article: Foreign relations of Bangladesh. Main article: Human rights in Bangladesh.

Main article: Corruption in Bangladesh. Main articles: Economy of Bangladesh and List of companies of Bangladesh. Main article: Transport in Bangladesh.

Main articles: Energy in Bangladesh , Natural gas and petroleum in Bangladesh , Telecommunications in Bangladesh , and Water supply and sanitation in Bangladesh.

Main article: Science and technology in Bangladesh. See also: Information technology in Bangladesh and Biotechnology and genetic engineering in Bangladesh.

Main article: Tourism in Bangladesh. Main articles: Demographics of Bangladesh and Bengalis. Further information: List of cities and towns in Bangladesh.

Largest cities or towns in Bangladesh Population and Housing Census []. Main article: Languages of Bangladesh.

Main article: Religion in Bangladesh. Religions in Bangladesh [] Religion Percent Islam. Main article: Education in Bangladesh. Main article: Health in Bangladesh.

Main article: Bangladeshi art. See also: Bangladeshi literature. Main article: Women in Bangladesh.

Main article: Architecture of Bangladesh. See also: Textile arts of Bangladesh and Muslin trade in Bengal. Main articles: Bengali cuisine and Bangladeshi cuisine.

Main articles: Public holidays in Bangladesh and List of festivals in Bangladesh. Main article: Sports in Bangladesh. Main articles: Media of Bangladesh and Cinema of Bangladesh.

Main articles: Museums in Bangladesh and List of libraries in Bangladesh. Bangladesh portal Asia portal. Bangladesh Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 28 December Retrieved 21 February In 13 January , the ministry of Bangladesh has adopted this song as a national marching song on its first meeting after the country's independence.

The state language". The Constitution of the People's Republic of Bangladesh. Retrieved 1 February National Web Portal of Bangladesh.

Archived from the original on 16 February Retrieved 13 February Retrieved 17 May Article 2A. US Department of State. Retrieved 3 December Retrieved 6 July Retrieved 9 November Census — Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics.

International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 8 December The Financial Express. Retrieved 14 June Archived from the original on 7 September Retrieved 3 October United Nations Development Programme.

Retrieved 10 December Cambridge Dictionary. Retrieved 26 March Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 19 June Eyetsemitan; James T.

Gire Greenwood Publishing Group. Essays on Ancient India. Discovery Publishing House. The Islamic World: Past and Present. Volume 1: Abba — Hist. Oxford University Press.

Archived from the original on 20 December Retrieved 29 August The New York Times. Archived from the original on 14 July Retrieved 15 July Dil Bengali language movement to Bangladesh.

Stern Praeger Publishers. Pew Research Center. World Population Review. Retrieved 30 November Strategic Monitor — Clingendael Institute.

Retrieved 25 May VOA News. Archived from the original on 5 March Public Organization Review. National Geographic. Archived from the original on 3 May Retrieved 14 July

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Bangladesh Third grade movie songs. Bangladeshi call girl phone sex keya. Bangladesh Phone sex keya. In southeastern Bangladesh, experiments have been done since the s to 'build with nature'.

Construction of cross dams has induced a natural accretion of silt, creating new land. With Dutch funding, the Bangladeshi government began promoting the development of this new land in the late s.

The effort has become a multi-agency endeavour, building roads, culverts, embankments, cyclone shelters, toilets and ponds, as well as distributing land to settlers.

In Sep , Bangladesh Government approved Bangladesh Delta Plan , a combination of long-term strategies and subsequent interventions for ensuring long term water and food security, economic growth and environmental sustainability.

Bangladesh is divided into eight administrative divisions, [] [] [] each named after their respective divisional headquarters: Barisal officially Barishal [] , Chittagong officially Chattogram [] , Dhaka , Khulna , Mymensingh , Rajshahi, Rangpur, and Sylhet.

Divisions are subdivided into districts zila. There are 64 districts in Bangladesh, each further subdivided into upazila subdistricts or thana.

The area within each police station, except for those in metropolitan areas, is divided into several unions , with each union consisting of multiple villages.

In the metropolitan areas, police stations are divided into wards, which are further divided into mahallas. There are no elected officials at the divisional or district levels, and the administration is composed only of government officials.

Direct elections are held in each union or ward for a chairperson and a number of members. In , a parliamentary act was passed to reserve three seats out of 12 in every union for female candidates.

Straddling the Tropic of Cancer , Bangladesh's climate is tropical with a mild winter from October to March, and a hot, humid summer from March to June.

Natural calamities, such as floods , tropical cyclones , tornadoes , and tidal bores occur almost every year, [] combined with the effects of deforestation , soil degradation and erosion.

The cyclones of and were particularly devastating, the latter killing some , people. In September , Bangladesh saw the most severe flooding in modern world history.

Effectively, two-thirds of the country was underwater. The severity of the flooding was attributed to unusually high monsoon rains, the shedding of equally unusually large amounts of melt water from the Himalayas , and the widespread cutting down of trees that would have intercepted rain water for firewood or animal husbandry.

Bangladesh is now widely recognised to be one of the countries most vulnerable to climate change. There is evidence that earthquakes pose a threat to the country and that plate tectonics have caused rivers to shift course suddenly and dramatically.

Bangladeshi water is frequently contaminated with arsenic because of the high arsenic content of the soil—up to 77 million people are exposed to toxic arsenic from drinking water.

Bangladesh is located in the Indomalayan realm. Its ecology includes a long sea coastline, numerous rivers and tributaries , lakes, wetlands , evergreen forests, semi evergreen forests, hill forests, moist deciduous forests , freshwater swamp forests and flat land with tall grass.

The Bangladesh Plain is famous for its fertile alluvial soil which supports extensive cultivation. The country is dominated by lush vegetation, with villages often buried in groves of mango , jackfruit , bamboo , betel nut , coconut and date palm.

Water lilies and lotuses grow vividly during the monsoon season. The country has 50 wildlife sanctuaries. It is divided into three protected sanctuaries—the South , East and West zones.

The northeastern Sylhet region is home to haor wetlands, which is a unique ecosystem. It also includes tropical and subtropical coniferous forests , a freshwater swamp forest and mixed deciduous forests.

The southeastern Chittagong region covers evergreen and semi evergreen hilly jungles. Central Bangladesh includes the plainland Sal forest running along the districts of Gazipur, Tangail and Mymensingh.

Martin's Island is the only coral reef in the country. Bangladesh has an abundance of wildlife in its forests, marshes, woodlands and hills. The Chital deer are widely seen in southwestern woodlands.

Other animals include the black giant squirrel , capped langur , Bengal fox , sambar deer , jungle cat , king cobra , wild boar , mongooses , pangolins , pythons and water monitors.

Bangladesh has one of the largest population of Irrawaddy dolphins and Ganges dolphins. A census found 6, Irrawaddy dolphins inhabiting the littoral rivers of Bangladesh.

It also has species of birds. Several animals became extinct in Bangladesh during the last century, including the one horned and two horned rhinoceros and common peafowl.

The human population is concentrated in urban areas, hence limiting deforestation to a certain extent. Rapid urban growth has threatened natural habitats.

Although many areas are protected under law, a large portion of Bangladeshi wildlife is threatened by this growth. Furthermore, access to biocapacity in Bangladesh is low.

In , Bangladesh had 0. In contrast, in , they used 0. As a result, Bangladesh is running a biocapacity deficit. The Bangladesh Environment Conservation Act was enacted in The government has designated several regions as Ecologically Critical Areas , including wetlands, forests and rivers.

The Sundarbans tiger project and the Bangladesh Bear Project are among the key initiatives to strengthen conservation. Bangladesh is a de jure representative democracy under its constitution , with a Westminster -style unitary parliamentary republic that has universal suffrage.

The head of government is the Prime Minister, who is invited to form a government every five years by the President.

The President invites the leader of the largest party in parliament to become Prime Minister of the world's fifth largest democracy.

During this period, elections were managed by a neutral caretaker government. But the caretaker government was abolished by the Awami League government in The BNP boycotted the next election in , arguing that it would not be fair without a caretaker government.

The election saw many allegations of irregularities. Bangladesh has a prominent civil society since the colonial period.

There are various special interest groups, including non-governmental organisations , human rights organisations, professional associations, chambers of commerce , employers' associations and trade unions.

One of the key aspects of Bangladeshi politics is the "spirit of the liberation war" which refers to the ideals of the liberation movement during the Bangladesh Liberation War.

In , the constitution included a bill of rights and declared "nationalism, socialism, democracy and secularity " as the principles of government policy.

Socialism was later de-emphasised and neglected by successive governments. Bangladesh has a market-based economy. To many Bangladeshis, especially in the younger generation, the spirit of the liberation war is a vision for a society based on civil liberties, human rights, the rule of law and good governance.

The tenure of a parliamentary government is five years. The Bangladesh Civil Service assists the cabinet in running the government.

Recruitment for the civil service is based on a public examination. In theory, the civil service should be a meritocracy. But a disputed quota system coupled with politicisation and preference for seniority have allegedly affected the civil service's meritocracy.

The President is elected by the parliament and has a five-year term. Under the constitution, the president acts on the advice of the prime minister.

The Jatiya Sangshad National Assembly is the unicameral parliament. It has Members of Parliament MPs , including MPs elected on the first past the post system and 50 MPs appointed to reserved seats for women's empowerment.

Article 70 of the Constitution of Bangladesh forbids MPs from voting against their party. However, several laws proposed independently by MPs have been transformed into legislation, including the anti-torture law.

There is also a Deputy Speaker. When a president is incapable of performing duties i. A recurring proposal suggests that the Deputy Speaker should be a member of the opposition.

The courts have wide latitude in judicial review and judicial precedent is supported by the Article of the constitution. The judiciary includes district and metropolitan courts, which are divided into civil and criminal courts.

Due to a shortage of judges, the judiciary has a large backlog. The Bangladesh Judicial Service Commission is an independent body responsible for judicial appointments, salaries and discipline.

Bangladesh's legal system is based on common law and its principal source of laws are acts of Parliament. One example is the Penal Code.

From to , laws were enacted by Pakistan's national assembly and the East Pakistani legislature. The Constituent Assembly of Bangladesh was the country's provisional parliament until , when the first elected Jatiyo Sangshad National Parliament was sworn in.

Although most of Bangladesh's laws were compiled in English, after a government directive laws are now primarily written in Bengali.

While most of Bangladeshi law is secular ; marriage, divorce and inheritance are governed by Islamic , Hindu and Christian family law. The judiciary is often influenced by legal developments in the Commonwealth of Nations , such as the doctrine of legitimate expectation.

In the active personnel strength of the Bangladesh Army was around ,, [] excluding the Air Force and the Navy 24, For many years, Bangladesh has been the world's largest contributor to UN peacekeeping forces.

The Bangladesh Navy has the third-largest fleet of countries dependent on the Bay of Bengal , including guided-missile frigates , submarines , cutters and aircraft.

The Bangladesh Air Force is equipped with several Russian multi-role fighter jets. Ties between the Bangladeshi and the Indian military exist with high-level visits by the military chiefs of both countries.

The first major intergovernmental organisation joined by Bangladesh was the Commonwealth of Nations in Bangladesh relies on multilateral diplomacy in the World Trade Organization.

In addition to membership in the Commonwealth of Nations and the United Nations, Bangladesh pioneered regional co-operation in South Asia.

Bangladesh is a founding member of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation SAARC , an organisation designed to strengthen relations and promote economic and cultural growth among its members.

It has hosted several summits and two Bangladeshi diplomats were the organisation's secretary-general. It has hosted the summit of OIC foreign ministers, which addresses issues, conflicts and disputes affecting Muslim-majority countries.

Bangladesh is a founding member of the Developing 8 Countries , which is a bloc of eight Muslim-majority republics. The neighbouring country of Myanmar Burma was one of the first countries to recognise Bangladesh.

In , both countries came to terms at the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea over maritime boundaries in the Bay of Bengal.

The parliament, government and civil society of Bangladesh have been at the forefront of international criticism against Myanmar for military operations against the Rohingya, which the United Nations has described as ethnic cleansing.

Bangladesh's most politically important bilateral relationship is with neighbouring India. In , major Indian newspapers called Bangladesh a "trusted friend".

The countries are collaborating in regional economic and infrastructure projects, such as a regional motor-vehicle agreement in eastern South Asia and a coastal shipping agreement in the Bay of Bengal.

Indo-Bangladesh relations often emphasise a shared cultural heritage, democratic values and a history of support for Bangladeshi independence.

Despite political goodwill, border killings of Bangladeshi civilians and the lack of a comprehensive water-sharing agreement for 54 trans-boundary rivers are major issues.

In , India joined Russia and China in refusing to condemn Myanmar's atrocities against the Rohingya , which contradicted with Bangladesh's demand for recognising Rohingya human rights.

The Bangladeshi beef and leather industries have seen increased prices due to the Indian BJP government's Hindu nationalist campaign against the export of beef and cattle skin.

Although Bangladeshi and Pakistani businesses have invested in each other, diplomatic relations are strained because of Pakistani denial of the Bangladesh genocide.

The execution of a Jamaat-e-Islami leader in on committing of war crimes during the liberation war was opposed in Pakistan and led to further strained ties.

Sino-Bangladesh relations date to the s and are relatively warm, despite the Chinese leadership siding with Pakistan during Bangladesh's war of independence.

China and Bangladesh established bilateral relations in which have significantly strengthened and the country is considered a cost-effective source of arms for the Bangladeshi military.

Japan is Bangladesh's largest economic-aid provider in the form of loans and the countries have common political goals. The United States is a major economic and security partner , its largest export market and foreign investor.

Seventy-six percent of Bangladeshis viewed the United States favourably in , one of the highest ratings among Asian countries.

Relations with other countries are generally positive. Shared democratic values ease relations with Western countries and similar economic concerns forge ties to other developing countries.

Despite poor working conditions and war affecting overseas Bangladeshi workers , relations with Middle Eastern countries are friendly and bounded by religion and culture.

More than a million Bangladeshis are employed in the region. In , the king of Saudi Arabia called Bangladesh "one of the most important Muslim countries".

Bangladeshi aid agencies work in many developing countries. Bangladeshi foreign policy is influenced by the principle of "friendship to all and malice to none", first articulated by Bengali statesman H.

Suhrawardy in A list of fundamental rights is enshrined in the country's constitution. The drafter of the constitution in , Dr. In the s, judges invalidated detentions under the Special Powers Act, through cases such as Aruna Sen v.

Government of Bangladesh and Abdul Latif Mirza v. Government of Bangladesh. In , the Supreme Court paved the way for citizenship for the Stranded Pakistanis , who were an estimated , stateless people.

The photojournalist Shahidul Alam was jailed and tortured for criticising the government. Successive governments and their security forces have flouted constitutional principles and have been accused of human rights abuses.

Bangladesh is ranked "partly free" in Freedom House 's Freedom in the World report, [] but its press is ranked "not free". The United Nations is concerned about government "measures that restrict freedom of expression and democratic space".

Bangladeshi security forces, particularly the Rapid Action Battalion RAB , have received international condemnation for human-rights abuses including enforced disappearances , torture and extrajudicial killings.

Over 1, people have been said to have been victims of extrajudicial killings by RAB since its inception under the last Bangladesh Nationalist Party government.

Secularism is protected by the constitution of Bangladesh and religious parties are barred from contesting elections; however, the government is accused of courting religious extremist groups.

Islam's ambiguous position as the de facto state religion has been criticised by the United Nations. The Hindu and Buddhist communities have experienced religious violence from Islamic groups — notably the Bangladesh Jamaat-e-Islami and its student wing Shibir.

However, Islamic groups are losing popular support -Islamic far-right candidates peaked at 12 percent of the vote in , falling to four percent in According to the Global Slavery Index, an estimated 1,, people are enslaved in modern-day Bangladesh, or 0.

Like for many developing countries, institutional corruption is a serious concern for Bangladesh. Bangladesh was ranked th among countries on Transparency International 's Corruption Perceptions Index.

Bangladesh has the world's 39th largest economy in terms of market exchange rates and 29th largest in terms of purchasing power parity , which ranks second in South Asia after India.

A developing nation , Bangladesh is one of the Next Eleven emerging markets. Expat workers in the Middle East and Southeast Asia send back a large chunk of remittances.

The economy is driven by strong domestic demand. During its first five years of independence Bangladesh adopted socialist policies.

The subsequent military regime and BNP and Jatiya Party governments restored free markets and promoted the country's private sector.

In , finance minister Saifur Rahman introduced a programme of economic liberalisation. The Bangladeshi private sector has rapidly expanded, with a number of conglomerates driving the economy.

Major industries include textiles, pharmaceuticals , shipbuilding, steel, electronics, energy, construction materials, chemicals, ceramics, food processing and leather goods.

Export-oriented industrialisation has increased with fiscal year —19 exports increasing by However, an insufficient power supply is a significant obstacle to Bangladesh's economic development.

According to the World Bank , poor governance, corruption and weak public institutions are also major challenges. Agriculture is the largest sector of the economy, making up More Bangladeshis earn their living from agriculture than from any other sector.

The country is among the top producers of rice fourth , potatoes seventh , tropical fruits sixth , jute second , and farmed fish fifth.

Major gas fields are located in the northeastern particularly Sylhet and southern including Barisal and Chittagong regions. Petrobangla is the national energy company.

The American multinational corporation Chevron produces 50 percent of Bangladesh's natural gas. Jute exports remain significant, although the global jute trade has shrunk considerably since its World War II peak.

Bangladesh has one of the world's oldest tea industries, and is a major exporter of fish and seafood. The pharmaceutical industry meets 97 percent of domestic demand, and exports to many countries.

Steel is concentrated in the port city of Chittagong, and the ceramics industry is prominent in international trade.

In Bangladesh was the world's 20th-largest cement producer, an industry dependent on limestone imports from northeast India. Food processing is a major sector, with local brands such as PRAN increasing their international presence.

The electronics industry is growing rapidly with contributions from companies like the Walton Group. The service sector accounts for 51 percent of the country's GDP.

Bangladesh ranks with Pakistan as South Asia's second-largest banking sector. Bangladesh's telecommunications industry is one of the world's fastest-growing, with million cellphone subscribers in December , [] and Grameenphone , Banglalink , Robi and BTTB are major companies.

Tourism is developing, with the beach resort of Cox's Bazar at the center of the industry. The Sylhet region, home to Bangladesh's tea gardens, also hosts a large number of visitors.

Muhammad Yunus successfully pioneered microfinance as a sustainable tool for poverty alleviation and others followed suit.

Transport is a major sector of the economy. Aviation has grown rapidly, and is dominated by the flag carrier Biman Bangladesh Airlines and other privately owned airlines.

Bangladesh has a number of airports including three international and several domestic STOL short takeoff and landing airports. The busiest, Shahjalal International Airport connects Dhaka with major destinations.

Bangladesh has a 2,kilometre 1,mile long rail network operated by the state-owned Bangladesh Railway. The total length of the country's road and highway network is nearly 21, kilometers 13, miles.

With 8, kilometres 5, miles of navigable waters, Bangladesh has one of the largest inland waterway networks in the world.

Bangladesh has three seaports and 22 river ports. Chittagong Dhaka. Mongla Aricha. Bangladesh had an installed electrical capacity of 20, megawatts in Bangladesh has planned to import hydropower from Bhutan and Nepal.

An estimated 98 percent of the country's population had access to improved water sources by [] a high percentage for a low-income country , achieved largely through the construction of hand pumps with support from external donors.

However, in it was discovered that much of Bangladesh's groundwater the source of drinking water for 97 percent of the rural population and a significant share of the urban population is naturally contaminated with arsenic.

Another challenge is low cost recovery due to low tariffs and poor economic efficiency , especially in urban areas where water revenue does not cover operating costs.

An estimated 56 percent of the population had access to adequate sanitation facilities in Bangladesh's tourist attractions include historical sites and monuments, resorts, beaches, picnic spots, forests and wildlife of various species.

Activities for tourists include angling , water skiing , river cruising, hiking, rowing , yachting , and sea bathing.

Estimates of the Bangladeshi population vary, but UN data suggests ,, Bangladesh is the world's eighth-most-populous nation and the most densely-populated large country in the world, ranking 7th in population density even when small countries and city-states are included.

With the promotion of birth control in the s, Bangladesh's growth rate began to slow. Its total fertility rate is now 2.

The population is relatively young, with 34 percent aged 15 or younger and five percent 65 or older. Life expectancy at birth was estimated at Bengalis are 98 percent of the population.

The Chittagong Hill Tracts region experienced unrest and an insurgency from to in an autonomy movement by its indigenous people.

Although a peace accord was signed in , the region remains militarised. Bangladesh is home to a significant Ismaili community. Stranded Pakistanis were given citizenship by the Supreme Court in Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh number at around 1 million, making Bangladesh one of the countries with the largest refugee populations in the world.

Dhaka is Bangladesh's capital and largest city and is overseen by two city corporations who manage between them the northern and southern part of the city.

Mayors are elected for five-year terms. Altogether there are urban centres in Bangladesh among which 43 cities have a population of more than The predominant language of Bangladesh is Bengali also known as Bangla.

Bengali is the one of the easternmost branches of the Indo-European language family. It is a part of the Eastern Indo-Aryan languages in South Asia, which developed between the 10th and 13th centuries.

Bengali is written using the Bengali script. In ancient Bengal, Sanskrit was the language of written communication, especially by priests. During the Islamic period, Sanskrit was replaced by Bengali as the vernacular language.

The Sultans of Bengal promoted the production of Bengali literature instead of Sanskrit. Bengali also received Persian and Arabic loanwords during the Sultanate of Bengal.

Under British rule , Bengali was significantly modernised by Europeans. Modern Standard Bengali emerged as the lingua franca of the region.

A heavily Sanskritized version of Bengali was employed by Hindu scholars during the Bengali Renaissance.

Muslim writers such as Kazi Nazrul Islam gave attention to the Persian and Arabic vocabulary of the language. Today, the Bengali language standard is prescribed by the Bangla Academy in Bangladesh.

More than 98 percent of people in Bangladesh speak Bengali as their native language. Currently there is a diglossia in which much of the population are able to understand or speak Standard Colloquial Bengali and in their regional dialect, these include the most distinct dialects some consider as separate languages such as Chittagonian or Sylheti.

All subsequent acts, ordinances and laws have been promulgated in Bengali since It is written using the Chakma script.

The unique aspect of the language is that it is used by the Chakma people, who are a population with similarities to the people of East Asia, rather than the Indian subcontinent.

The Chakma language is endangered due to its decreasing use in schools and institutions. Other tribal languages include Garo , Meitei , Kokborok and Rakhine.

Among the Austroasiatic languages , the Santali language is spoken by the Santali tribe. Many of these languages are written in the Bengali script; while there is also some usage of the Latin script.

Urdu has a significant heritage in Bangladesh, in particular Old Dhaka. The language was introduced to Bengal in the 17th-century.

Traders and migrants from North India often spoke the language in Bengal, as did sections of the Bengali upper class.

Urdu poets lived in many parts of Bangladesh. The use of Urdu became controversial during the Bengali Language Movement , when the people of East Bengal resisted attempts to impose Urdu as the main official language.

In modern Bangladesh, the Urdu-speaking community is restricted to the country's Bihari community formerly Stranded Pakistanis ; and some sections of the Old Dhakaiya population.

The constitution grants freedom of religion and officially makes Bangladesh a secular state , while establishing Islam as the "religion of the Republic".

There is also a minority of non-Bengali Muslims. About four percent are non-denominational Muslims. The largest gathering of Muslims in Bangladesh is the apolitical Bishwa Ijtema , held annually by the orthodox Tablighi Jamaat.

The Ijtema is the second-largest Muslim congregation in the world, after the Hajj. The Islamic Foundation is an autonomous government agency responsible for some religious matters under state guidance, including monitoring of sighting of the moon in accordance with the lunar Islamic calendar in order to set festival dates; as well as the charitable tradition of zakat.

Hinduism is followed by 8. Bangladeshi Hindus are the country's second-largest religious group and the third-largest Hindu community in the world, after those in India and Nepal.

The festivals of Durga's Return and Krishna's Birthday are public holidays. Buddhism is the third-largest religion, at 0. Bangladeshi Buddhists are concentrated among ethnic groups in the Chittagong Hill Tracts particularly the Chakma, Marma and Tanchangya peoples , while coastal Chittagong is home to a large number of Bengali Buddhists.

Although the Mahayana school of Buddhism was historically prevalent in the region, Bangladeshi Buddhists today adhere to the Theravada school.

Buddha's Birthday is a public holiday. The chief Buddhist priests are based at a monastery in Chittagong.

Christianity is the fourth-largest religion, at 0. Bengali Christians are spread across the country; while there are many Christians among minority ethnic groups in the Chittagong Hill Tracts southeastern Bangladesh and within the Garo tribe of Mymensingh north-central Bangladesh.

The country also has Protestant, Baptist and Oriental Orthodox churches. Christmas is a public holiday. The Constitution of Bangladesh declares Islam the state religion, but bans religion-based politics.

It proclaims equal recognition of Hindus, Buddhists, Christians and people of all faiths. Bangladesh has a literacy rate of The country's educational system is three-tiered and heavily subsidised, with the government operating many schools at the primary, secondary and higher-secondary levels and subsidising many private schools.

In the tertiary-education sector, the Bangladeshi government funds over 45 state universities [] through the University Grants Commission.

The education system is divided into five levels: primary first to fifth grade , junior secondary sixth to eighth grade , secondary ninth and tenth grade , higher secondary 11th and 12th grade and tertiary.

Students who pass the PEC examination proceed to secondary or matriculation training, culminating in the SSC examination.

Students who pass this examination proceed to two years of secondary education, culminating in the SSC examination.

Students who pass this examination proceed to two years of higher-secondary education, culminating in the Higher Secondary School Certificate HSC examination.

Education is primarily in Bengali, but English is commonly taught and used. Many Muslim families send their children to part-time courses or full-time religious education in Bengali and Arabic in madrasas.

Article 17 of the Bangladesh Constitution provides that all children between the ages of six and ten years receive a basic education free of charge.

Universities in Bangladesh are of three general types: public government-owned and -subsidized , private privately owned universities and international operated and funded by international organisations.

Bangladesh has 46 public, [] private [] and two international universities ; Bangladesh National University has the largest enrolment, and the University of Dhaka established in is the oldest.

University of Chittagong established in is the largest University Campus: Rural, 2, acres 8. Asian University for Women in Chittagong is the preeminent South Asian liberal-arts university for women, representing 14 Asian countries; its faculty hails from notable academic institutions in North America, Europe, Asia, Australia and the Middle East.

The NITER is a specialised public-private partnership institute which provides higher education in textile engineering.

Medical education is provided by 29 government and private medical colleges. All medical colleges are affiliated with the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.

Bangladesh's literacy rate rose to 71 percent due to education modernisation and improved funding, with 16, schools and 2, colleges receiving Monthly Pay Order MPO facilities.

According to then education minister Nurul Islam Nahid , 27, madrasas and technical and vocational institutions were enlisted for the facility.

Healthcare facilities in Bangladesh is considered less than adequate, although they have improved as poverty levels have decreased significantly.

Formally-trained providers made up only four percent of the total health workforce. The Future Health Systems survey indicated significant deficiencies in the treatment practices of village doctors, with widespread harmful and inappropriate drug prescribing.

A study of 1, households in rural Bangladesh found that direct payments to formal and informal healthcare providers and indirect costs loss of earnings because of illness associated with illness were deterrents to accessing healthcare from qualified providers.

Bangladesh's poor health conditions are attributed to the lack of healthcare provision by the government. According to a World Bank report, healthcare spending was 3.

Malnutrition has been a persistent problem in Bangladesh, with the World Bank ranking the country first in the number of malnourished children worldwide.

The recorded history of art in Bangladesh can be traced to the 3rd century BCE, when terracotta sculptures were made in the region.

In classical antiquity, a notable school of sculptural Hindu, Jain and Buddhist art developed in the Pala Empire and the Sena dynasty.

Islamic art evolved since the 14th century. The architecture of the Bengal Sultanate saw a distinct style of domed mosques with complex niche pillars that had no minarets.

Mughal Bengal 's most celebrated artistic tradition was the weaving of Jamdani motifs on fine muslin, which is now classified by UNESCO as an intangible cultural heritage.

Jamdani motifs were similar to Iranian textile art buta motifs and Western textile art paisley. The Jamdani weavers in Dhaka received imperial patronage.

Pottery is widely used in Bengali culture. The modern art movement in Bangladesh took shape during the s, particularly with the pioneering works of Zainul Abedin.

East Bengal developed its own modernist painting and sculpture traditions, which were distinct from the art movements in West Bengal.

The Art Institute Dhaka has been an important center for visual art in the region. Novera Ahmed and Nitun Kundu were the country's pioneers of modernist sculpture.

In recent times, photography as a medium of art has become popular. Biennial Chobi Mela is considered the largest photography festival in Asia.

Bengali developed from Sanskrit and Magadhi Prakrit in the 8th to 10th century. Bengali literature is a millennium-old tradition; the Charyapadas are the earliest examples of Bengali poetry.

Sufi spiritualism inspired many Bengali Muslim writers. The Chandidas are the notable lyric poets from the early Medieval Age.

Syed Alaol was a noted secular poet and translator from the Arakan region. The Bengal Renaissance shaped the emergence of modern Bengali literature, including novels, short stories and science fiction.

Begum Rokeya is regarded as the pioneer feminist writer of Bangladesh. The writer Syed Mujtaba Ali is noted for his cosmopolitan Bengali worldview.

Shamsur Rahman and Al Mahmud are considered two of the greatest Bengali poets to have emerged in the 20th century.

Ahmed Sofa is regarded as the most important Bangladeshi intellectual in the post-independence era. Humayun Ahmed was a popular writer of modern Bangladeshi magical realism and science fiction.

Although, as of [update] , several women occupied major political office in Bangladesh, its women continue to live under a patriarchal social regime where violence is common.

Bengal has a long history of feminist activism dating back to the 19th century. Begum Rokeya and Faizunnessa Chowdhurani played an important role in emancipating Bengali Muslim women from purdah , prior to the country's division, as well as promoting girls' education.

The first women's magazine, Begum , was published in Agriculture, social services, healthcare and education are also major occupations for Bangladeshi women, while their employment in white collar positions has steadily increased.

The architectural traditions of Bangladesh have a 2,year-old heritage. Islamic architecture began developing under the Bengal Sultanate, when local terracotta styles influenced medieval mosque construction.

The Sixty Dome Mosque was the largest medieval mosque built in Bangladesh, and is a fine example of Turkic-Bengali architecture.

The Mughal style replaced indigenous architecture when Bengal became a province of the Mughal Empire and influenced the development of urban housing.

The Kantajew Temple and Dhakeshwari Temple are excellent examples of late medieval Hindu temple architecture. Indo-Saracenic Revival architecture , based on Indo-Islamic styles, flourished during the British period.

Bengali vernacular architecture is noted for pioneering the bungalow. Bangladeshi villages consist of thatched roofed houses made of natural materials like mud , straw , wood and bamboo.

In modern times, village bungalows are increasingly made of tin. Muzharul Islam was the pioneer of Bangladeshi modern architecture. His varied works set the course of modern architectural practice in the country.

Kahn's monumental designs, combining regional red brick aesthetics, his own concrete and marble brutalism and the use of lakes to represent Bengali geography, are regarded as one of the masterpieces of the 20th century.

In more recent times, award-winning architects like Rafiq Azam have set the course of contemporary architecture by adopting influences from the works of Islam and Kahn.

Theatre in Bangladesh includes various forms with a history dating back to the 4th century CE.

The dance traditions of Bangladesh include indigenous tribal and Bengali dance forms, as well as classical Indian dances , including the Kathak , Odissi and Manipuri dances.

Most modern Bauls are devoted to Lalon Shah. Folk music is accompanied by a one-stringed instrument known as the ektara. Other instruments include the dotara , dhol , flute, and tabla.

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